Interpretation of various control standards for the printing production process
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There are various control standards in the printing production process, which are now interpreted:
1.ISO12647 printing process control standard
The printing technology committee TC130 under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) of printing technology has developed the international standards, which can be summarized into the following categories: terminology standards; prepress data exchange format standards; printing process control standards; Printability standards for raw and auxiliary materials; ergonomics/safety standards.
Among them, the printing process control standard is the basic standard for the wide application of printing production. It plays an important role in ISO/TC130. It mainly specifies the technical requirements and testing methods of key quality parameters in the printing production process. Such as ISO12647 a series of standards, it is divided according to the offset printing, gravure, screen printing, flexo printing, digital printing process, for different printing methods of quality control energy, specify their respective technical requirements and testing methods.
ISO12647 (screen control for color-coded color separations, proofs, and printed products) is based on standards that include ink, paper, measurement, and visual inspection standards. This standard includes many parts, each of which is printed differently. The process defines the minimum value of the process parameters:
(1) SO12647-1: parameters and measurements;
(2) SO12647-2: offset printing;
(3) SO12647-3: newsprint cold-set offset printing;
(4) SO12647-4: publication gravure;
(5) SO12647-5: screen printing;
(6) SO12647-6: flexo printing;
(7) SO12647-7: Digital printing and proofing.
In short, ISO international standards facilitate the exchange of information between print practitioners, prepress departments, and print buyers. As an international standard, ISO has been more widely accepted and adopted by print buyers, and has become a passport for printing companies to enter and exit the export business.
In China, there are more and more printing companies adopting international standards, such as Toppan Li & Fung Accor Co., Ltd., Beijing Shengliban Printing Technology Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Yingtian Printing Co., Ltd., and many other well-known printing companies, and even some scales. Not a very large enterprise, in the printing production, strictly follow the requirements of a series of international standards such as ISO12647-2, ISO12647-7, ISO2846, ISO12646, ISO10128, etc. to carry out every step of the printing process, so that the products can be ordered, There are chapters to check to ensure product stability.
2.DIN printing process control standard
The German Institute for Standardization (DeutscheslnstitutfǜrNormung, DIN for short) is a member of the European and International Organization for Standardization and has a high level of participation in relevant standardization activities, as well as a number of secretariat work.
90% of the standards developed by DIN are for international purposes. Every year, DIN publishes a summary report of German and international technical standards. The total number of standards published by DIN has reached 31,100, including 2,500 newly released in 2000. The standards in printing technology are as DIN16604-1973 on the size of newspapers, paper, advertising bar type, advertising column width, and spacing between advertising columns (the paper size we use every day, such as A3, A4 comes from another) , DIN 16537-1998 on the printing process of printed matter and ink inspection prints in the visible print number.
Many of the printing standards in the DI standard have been adopted by ISO and converted into international standards, such as the ISO12647-2 codenamed DINISO12647-2 in Germany.
3.JapanColor Japanese color management standard
JapanColor is a specification and certification system developed by the Japan Printing Machinery Association to encourage the widespread adoption of printing standards in the printing industry throughout Japan. JapanColor is ISO compliant and provides guidelines for offset sheet, newspaper and web offset printing, and these guidelines have been specifically revised to accommodate the special needs of the Japanese printing market. The JapanColor standard mainly includes: standard ink; standard paper, solid color standard color measurement value; solid color sample; color reproduction printing.
Since the four-color ink used in Japan has a standard CMYK card hue, ISO also analyzes the characteristics of various standard inks in Europe and the United States according to Japanese standard inks, and develops the standard ISO2846-1 for offset inks. [next]
4. PSO offset printing production standards
Offset Production Standard Offset Production Standard (processStandardOffset, PSO for short) is developed by the Image Technology Research Association (FOGRA) in Munich, Germany for the German Printing Media Industry Alliance (BVDM) for implementation in the printing industry. PSO is also based on the ISO12647-2 specification. It strictly follows the ISO12647-2 specification and incorporates some supplementary specifications, especially for digital proofing, or with intermediate tone color priority in case of conflict with ground color. right.
In addition, there are some related standards in other printing fields like PSO, such as PSR (ProcessStandardRotogravure) PSN (ProcessStandardNewspaper) pacSpace (PackagingcolorSpace in Rotogravurprinting), etc., the common goal is to better guide the printing production process to achieve the quality of printed products. Stability and unity.
5.SWOP Rotary Offset Printing Parameters
SWOP (Specification for Weboffsetpublication) is a description of the rotary offset printing parameters, which was jointly developed by SWOP and the American Technical Association to regulate the rotary offset printing workflow. SWPO is based on a print workflow. Incorporating the impact of new technologies on the process, the main points of each work are introduced one by one, including the environment for observing manuscripts and color drafts, digital manuscript preparation, materials, proofing, etc., as well as advertisers, prepress service providers, publishers, and printing. Continuously improve the quality of print publishing by setting and modifying parameter standards and tolerances. It provides printers with a guide to all the parameters required for the production and editing of the advertisements. After the relevant personnel follow these parameters, the printer can complete the copy according to the intention of the advertiser and the publisher, which greatly reduces the production difficulty. Every step in the printing process should be measured and confirmed, and the quality criteria should be judged, allowing each operator located in it to monitor and improve the production process through statistical methods.
6.SNAP newsprint advertising specifications
SNAP (SpecificationsforNewsprintAdvertisingProduction) is a newsprint advertising printing specification designed to improve the quality of newspaper printing and improve the accuracy of information conversion. SNAP is primarily targeted at advertisers, advertising agencies, publishers, prepress managers, material suppliers, commercial printers and newspaper printers. This specification applies to proofing and cold-set printing of reel newsprint (uncoated wood pulp paper) such as offset, embossing and flexo printing.
The SNAP specification mainly includes: division of labor and responsibility of the printing process, job summary, pre-press and guidance of the printing process. In the job summary section, the digital workflow is introduced, and the requirements for printed manuscripts, the processing of post-press materials, and the communication between the printing industries are greatly assisted. The pre-press and printing process guides provide printing for the year. The reference values of the rules are based on a reasonable tolerance. The practitioner can find the parameter values and the allowable error range in the production and measurement process according to the printing method of all materials, and use the reference values in the SNAP specification. Predictive high quality printing can be achieved. The SNAP committee has consistently supported industry standards. The American National Standards Institute (ANS) and ISO standards have been referenced and cited many times in the specification.
7.G7 process control method
GRACOL (GeneralRequirementsandAppolicationsforCommercialOffsetLithography) is an offset printing technology promotion organization in the United States, which is affiliated with the International Digital Enterprise Alliance (IDEAlliance). GRACOL is a color reproduction specification for sheetfed lithographic offset printing. It adopts neutral gray printing density curve according to ISO12467-2 international printing standard, and NPDC is the core content. It has developed a large set of standard printing production data testing and implementation. Method, and in June 2006 released a new version of the implementation method --- G7. In addition, it should be noted that G7 is not a standard. It is a kind of normative data for printing production. It uses two to guide production personnel to control the printing process.
Based on extensive testing, G7 has extracted a series of new print inspection concepts and corresponding parameters. After measuring and calculating these parameters, some data are finally obtained. Based on these results, the RIP output calibration curve of CTP platemaking or imagesetter is adjusted. In order to ensure that the system can further improve the quality of the print and color reproduction based on the reproducible work.
In addition, in order to adapt to the development of different fields, some related industrial organizations or standardization organizations will also develop printing standards or specifications for certain special printing fields, such as JMPA and a series of image printing standards specially developed by CGATS in the United States, and Australia's 3DAP standards. Wait. However, regardless of the printing standards or specifications, it is designed to promote the development of the printing industry and to improve the repeatability of the stability of the quality of printed products in the printing production process.